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Why does the United States Patent and Trademark Office refuse to register trademarks?

Sometimes the USPTO refuses to register trademarks based on it likelihood to cause confusion in the market.

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) may be required to refuse registration of a mark on numerous grounds. One reason is there is a Likelihood of Confusion as to the source of the mark.

The USPTO's attorney conducts a search for conflicting marks as part of the official examination of an application to determine if there is a conflict between the mark in the application and a mark that is either registered or pending in the USPTO. This assessment is based on the mark's sound, appearance, meaning, commercial impression, and meaning as well as the goods and services classifications. See below.

Sound: phonetic equivalents

Your mark -- T. MarkeyConflicting mark -- Tee Marquee

Appearance: look similar
Your mark -- T. Markey
Conflicting mark -- T. Markey
Meaning: LUPO in Italian means WOLF
Your mark -- Lupo   Conflicting mark: Wolf
Commercial Impression: same design element or meaning
Your mark -- T. Markey drawing   Conflicting mark -- T. Markey

Your mark -- City woman  Conflicting mark -- City Girl

Related Goods and Services
Your goods -- T-shirts and pants  Related goods -- Hats
Your services -- Banking services  Related services -- Mortgage lending services
Your goods -- T-shirts and pants   Related services -- Online retail store services featuring clothing
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