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Likelihood of Confusion Survey Format Types

Likelihood of Confusion

Survey Format Types

How to determine which format to use for your Likelihood of Confusion survey.

If  your case involves trademark or trade dress infringement a consumer survey to test the source of the mark may be required to show infringement. But which type of survey is the right choice? Harper Litigation Consulting and Research experts have over thirty years of survey experience.

There are two basic likelihood of confusion survey formats: Squirt and Eveready. Deciding which format to use requires knowledge about branding, awareness, distribution, and consumer behavior. With 30 years experience, Ms. Harper knows that while nearly two million marks are federally registered, few have reached the level of awareness sufficient to be cued in a consumer's mind by an exposure to a similar junior use. This internal search of memory for a strong brand's schema that exists at the core of an Eveready study is a tough hurdle for most marks. Therefore, the Squirt-based format, with an external review of the marks at issue that flows from their side-by-side or sequential exposure may be more appropriate.

In an Eveready survey, given the "accessibility" of a strong mark, an unaided comparison (involving an internal search of memory) is appropriate where the respondent is likely to encounter the junior mark (and pattern match) in the natural flow of commerce. In a Squirt format, however, where the senior mark is not "accessible" in memory, an aided comparison (involving the representativeness heuristic) is appropriate where the marks exist "side-by-side" in the market or if one is typically encountered sufficiently soon after the other that the recent brand or stimulus exposure (the "recency effect") places both in the consumer's "cognitive workspace."

Ms. Harper is routinely retained to provide trademark and trade dress surveys. Specifically, she formulates expert surveys, conducts rebuttal critiques, and/or constructs rebuttal surveys to show the potential difference in results with properly designed and executed surveys. She has extensive experience and a deep understanding of survey design, sampling, question construction, data analysis, and methodological pitfalls that introduce bias or systematic error.

Select Trademark and Trade Dress Case Client Categories

  • Advertising Services
  • Airlines
  • Apparel
  • Bags
  • Bars
  • Beverage
  • Cannabis Company
  • E-commerce Travel Websites
  • Financial Services
  • Insurance Company
  • Farm Equipment
  • Food
  • Health & Beauty Aids
  • Home Entertainment Company
  • Home Improvement Products
  • HVAC Company
  • Jeans
  • Marriage Ministries
  • Restaurants
  • Retailers
  • Small Appliances
  • Swimming Pool Company
  • Technology
  • Tools
  • Toys
  • Utility Company
  • Vaping Manufacturer
  • Vaping Retailer

Rhonda Harper Expert Witness

Rhonda HarperRetained by 100+ law firms since 2005, Ms. Harper is courtroom proven. She has been engaged to provide 65+ surveys, 80+ reports, 30+ rebuttals, 45+ depositions, and serve in 20+ trials. She has provided services to both Plaintiffs (60%) and Defendants (40%) across trademark and trade dress, packaging, merchandising, defamation, licensing, breach of contract, advertising, and commercial reasonableness. She has provided services in virtually every Circuit as well as JAMS and TTAB.

Ms. Harper's 30+ year career includes serving as a Fortune 100 Chief Marketing Officer. Having authored two books, she is a former Adjunct MBA Marketing Professor.

Ms. Harper is routinely retained to formulate expert surveys, conduct rebuttal critiques, or construct rebuttal surveys to show the potential difference in results with properly designed and executed surveys. She has extensive experience and a deep understanding of survey design, sampling, question construction, data analysis, and methodological pitfalls that introduce bias or systematic error.

Call today for a free case review and estimate: 214-244-4608.

Professional Memberships

Trademark Infringement | Trade Dress Infringement | Misleading Advertising | Licensing | Defamation | Commercial Reasonableness | Likelihood of Confusion | Secondary Meaning | Genericness | IP Infringement | Consumer Surveys