Harper Litigation Consulting and Research

Litigating a Trademark Case That Involves a Secondary Meaning Claim?

Litigating a Trademark Case That Involves a Secondary Meaning Claim?

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What is Secondary Meaning?

Descriptive marks are not ordinarily protectable as trademarks. If they have acquired a secondary meaning, however, they may be able to be protected. Secondary meaning is achieved when relevant consumers come to identify a mark with a certain product or service over time. When this happens, a descriptive mark that a business would not have been able to register initially, because it related to the class of products and not the specific brand, may achieve protected trademark status.

Although each of the eleven circuits have formulated some version of a multi factor test to assess whether a mark has acquired secondary meaning, the Federal Circuit has clarified its own test, identifying the following factors that should be “weighed together”:

  1. Association of the trade dress with a particular source by actual purchasers (typically measured by customer surveys);
  2. Length, degree, and exclusivity of use;
  3. Amount and manner of advertising;
  4. Amount of sales and number of customers;
  5. Intentional copying; and
  6. Unsolicited media coverage of the product embodying the mark.

Secondary Meaning Survey Experience

If your case involves a trademark that has possibly achieved secondary meaning, HLCR's trademark survey expertise may be the difference in winning and losing. Survey evidence is a common way of proving secondary meaning, a crucial step in trademark litigation.  Specifically, a secondary meaning survey typically seeks to assess whether relevant consumers associate a trademark or trade dress with a single source. If relevant consumers associate the mark with a single source (rather than associating the mark with the class of products as a whole), this provides strong evidence that the mark has acquired secondary meaning.

Rhonda Harper MBA, Secondary Meaning Survey Expert, Expert Witness

Rhonda HarperRetained by 100+ law firms since 2005, Ms. Harper is courtroom proven. She has been engaged to provide 70+ surveys, 80+ reports, 30+ rebuttals, 45+ depositions, and serve in 20+ trials. She has provided services to both Plaintiffs (60%) and Defendants (40%) across trademark and trade dress, packaging, merchandising, defamation, licensing, breach of contract, advertising, and commercial reasonableness. She has provided services in virtually every Circuit as well as JAMS and TTAB.

Ms. Harper's 30+ year career includes serving as a Fortune 100 Chief Marketing Officer. Having authored two books, she is a former Adjunct MBA Marketing Professor.

Ms. Harper is routinely retained to formulate expert surveys, conduct rebuttal critiques, or construct rebuttal surveys to show the potential difference in results with properly designed and executed surveys. She has extensive experience and a deep understanding of survey design, sampling, question construction, data analysis, and methodological pitfalls that introduce bias or systematic error.

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