Likelihood of confusion exists when a trademark or trade dress causes relevant consumers to be confused as to the source or affiliation of that product or service. Confusion can take place before the sale, at the point-of-sale, or after the sale.
The courts recognize two types of confusion in trademark or trade dress:
A likelihood of confusion survey assesses whether a “reasonably prudent” consumer would be confused by the use of similar marks on competing products. If a substantial number of respondents believe that the two marks are related or affiliated in some way, then there is strong evidence of potential confusion.
Retained by 100+ law firms since 2005, Ms. Harper is courtroom proven. She has been engaged to provide 65+ surveys, 80+ reports, 30+ rebuttals, 45+ depositions, and serve in 20+ trials. She has provided services to both Plaintiffs (60%) and Defendants (40%) across trademark and trade dress, packaging, merchandising, defamation, licensing, breach of contract, advertising, and commercial reasonableness. She has provided services in virtually every Circuit as well as JAMS and TTAB.
Ms. Harper's 30+ year career includes serving as a Fortune 100 Chief Marketing Officer. Having authored two books, she is a former Adjunct MBA Marketing Professor.
Ms. Harper is routinely retained to formulate expert surveys, conduct rebuttal critiques, or construct rebuttal surveys to show the potential difference in results with properly designed and executed surveys. She has extensive experience and a deep understanding of survey design, sampling, question construction, data analysis, and methodological pitfalls that introduce bias or systematic error.
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